April 13, 2021, marks the 102nd anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The killings took place at Jallianwala on April 13, 1919.

As we remember those who lost their lives in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, here are some of the facts everyone should know about the unfateful day:

People were not made aware of the Martian Law imposition that prohibited public gatherings. As a result, thousands gathered to celebrate the festival of Baisakhi, which is marked on April 13 in the year 1919.

The killings took place on the orders of colonel Reginald Dyer, the Acting Brigadier. Colonel Dyer ordered the firing without warning or asking the crowd to disperse.

There were two armoured cars with machine guns that were used in the shooting, besides Gurkha and Baluchi soldiers using Scinde rifles.

That day witnessed incessant firing for 10 to 15 minutes, which included 1,650 rounds of bullets being fired on the spot; which resulted in the death of over 1,000 people. However, the official reports stated 379 people as deceased and 1,200 as wounded.

The site of the brutal, unfortunate incident was an enclosed garden in Amritsar, Punjab, known as theJallianwala Bagh. The event is also addressed as Amritsar Massacre.

The place was closed on three sides as there were houses built around it with their back walls enclosing the area. Barring the main entrance, there was no way for the people gathered to flee.

Rabindranath Tagore refused to accept his knighthood as a protest to the horrible Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Owing to the same reason, Mahatma Gandhi returned his ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ award. He was honoured for his role in the Boer War in South Africa by the British government.

Udham Singh, a member of the revolutionist Ghadar party, shot Colonel Reginald Dyer on March 13, 1940. He took revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Shingara Singh, the last known survivor of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, passed away in Amritsar on June 29, 2009, at the age of 113.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tributes to the victims of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre on Tuesday, and said their courage, heroism and sacrifice give strength to every Indian.

“Tributes to those martyred in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Their courage, heroism and sacrifice gives strength to every Indian,” Modi said.

Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu also paid tributes. “My humble tributes to the brave martyrs who were massacred in Jallianwala Bagh on April 13, 1919. No matter how many years pass, the pain that the Jallianwala Bagh massacre inflicted in the hearts of every Indian will always remain the same,” the Vice President Secretariat tweeted quoting Naidu.

The nation will be ever indebted to the martyrs for their supreme sacrifice, he said.

Home Minister Amit Shah tweeted, “Tributes to the valour and indomitable courage of the immortals martyred in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. This grateful nation will never forget your supreme sacrifice to free Mother India from the shackles of slavery.”

Captain Amarinder Singh shared an image of himself at the Jallianwala Bagh. Singh tweeted, “I join my fellow Punjabis in paying homage to the valiant Jallianwala Bagh Martyrs who changed the course of India’s freedom struggle with their supreme sacrifice. This unparalleled act of tyranny also reminds us of the power of courage in the face of oppression. Jai Hind!”

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