If we look around, we can see that electricity forms the backbone of everything we do, whether it is in our homes or at a production line. The major electrical power sources are away from the city and require a complex set of devices that brings it closer for use. One such device is the power transformer that is used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another.
How Does It Work?
A power transformer is a static machine used to transfer energy between a generator and distribution networks. It is then sent to different locations through the power grid. The transformer, which works on AC supply, is used to interface step up and step down voltages in the electrical distribution systems.
What Are Some Of The Basic Characteristics?
The power transformer is one of many kinds of transformers that are used. Here are some of the basic features that set it apart.
- The transformers are usually heavy and big, similar to the ones that can be seen on electrical poles on the streets. They do vary in size but are still on the heavier side due to their iron core. The core is usually laminated in order to minimize any current losses. Since the power transformer operates a large amount of current, this is an essential feature.
- The core is shaped in either a shell type or a core type. The former has both primary and secondary windings on the center leg. In contrast, the core type has windings on separate legs. The power transformer may have one or more primary and secondary windings.
- The flux path in the power transformer is short to reduce leakage influx and isolates the circuitry that connects its secondary source from the primary source.
The power transformer is restricted to low-level frequencies and should not be operated at high frequencies as that would lead to excessive losses.
What Are The Types Of A Power Transformer?
A power transformer can be of various types, depending on its purpose, construction.
The different types of transformers are:
- Step-Up And Step-Down Transformers
The step-up transformer converts the low voltage and high current from the primary source of power to high voltage and low current to the secondary source. On the other hand, the step-down power transformer converts the high voltage and low current from the primary source of power to low voltage and high current value to the secondary side.
- Three Phase And Single Phase Transformers
A three-phase power transformer will have three sets of primary and secondary windings which are connected to form one unit. On the other hand, the single-phase transformer has a single-phase AC power input and is usually used in step down transformers. Since these are commonly used to decrease home voltage, they are perfect to power electronic appliances at home.
Where Are They Used?
A power transformer also varies in size, with a small transformer ranging between 500 to 7500 kVA. The medium transformer pulls in about 100 MVA. The larger power transformer transfers electrical current beyond 100 MVA. They find use in various electrical circuits that include the transmission and distribution of electrical power. Power plants, industrial sites, and electric utility companies primarily use the power transformer.
A power transformer is highly specialized and comes in varying sizes. They form an essential part of any electrical system and are used for a range of operations. If you are unsure of the type that works for you, make sure you contact a trained professional or a manufacturer who can guide you better by providing expert recommendations and help with installation procedures as well!